wiki

cache

In computers and other electronic devices, a cache is a portion of memory or disk space that’s designed to help speed up the user experience by storing frequently used files in either memory or mass storage for more immediate access. Typically, the most common caches include the memory cache and disk cache.

 

1. Memory Cache

While memory caches aren’t the type of cache we typically think about, these caches serve a vital role in computing. As memory such as the RAM in your system, SRAM in CPUs, or VRAM in GPUs, is orders of magnitude faster than mass storage such as HDDs or SSDs, the memory cache allows the memory to store commonly accessed code or code that’s about to be used so that it can be loaded and executed quickly.

 

2. Disk Cache

Whereas memory caches are caches of data stored in memory, disk caches are simply caches of data stored on the disk. While memory caching is always preferred for the best performance, memory is usually not only expensive, but is also limited in capacity and typically doesn’t store data persistently. As a result, data such as that from the browser cache or temporary file cache is better off stored on a disk cache.

Browser Cache

The most commonly known cache is the browser cache. The browser cache is a cache for internet browsers such as Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Opera, etc. The browser cache stores webpage data such as HTML, CSS, images, etc. locally on your system so that data doesn’t need to be re-downloaded from the website’s servers thereby helping the webpage load faster and reducing the amount of bandwidth used.

Generally, the browser cache is a disk cache as the data is stored on the non-volatile disk, but for those with high performance systems with large amounts of memory, the browser cache can be set to use memory as well.

CCX

AMD Zen CCX (Core Complex)

AMD Zen CCX (Core Complex)

In AMD CPUs, CCX is an acronym used by AMD to refer to the Core Complex used in AMD’s Zen architecture based processors. Each CCX is a modular unit which contains four Zen cores connected to a shared L3 cache. Multiple CCX are then connected together using AMD’s Infinity Fabric interconnect to then create processors. For example, AMD’s Ryzen 7 processors contain two CCX while AMD’s EPYC 7000 processors contain four CCX.

Cherry MX Switches

Cherry MX switches are mechanical keyboard switches manufactured by Cherry Corporation. Cherry MX switches are considered to be the gold standard of modern mechanical keyboards. First invented back in 1983, the Cherry MX mechanical switch has been in production for over three decades, but has only recently seen a resurgence due to the increased popularity of mechanical keyboards in the past few years. Currently, Cherry’s MX mechanical switch patents have expired leading to many companies such as Kailh, Gateron, Greetech, and others to produce “clones” of the iconic mechanical switch.

 

 

Common Cherry MX Mechanical Keyboard Switches

Cherry MX Blue

Actuation Force (g): 50

Actuation Distance (mm): 2.2

Full Travel Distance (mm): 4

Lifespan: 50 Million

Other Characteristics: Tactile bump, Clicky

Cherry MX Brown

Actuation Force (g): 45

Actuation Distance (mm): 2.2

Full Travel Distance (mm): 4

Lifespan: 50 Million

Other Characteristics: Tactile bump

Cherry MX Red

Actuation Force (g): 45

Actuation Distance (mm): 2.2

Full Travel Distance (mm): 4

Lifespan: 50 Million

Other Characteristics: Linear (Silent)

Cherry MX Black

Actuation Force (g): 60

Actuation Distance (mm): 2.2

Full Travel Distance (mm): 4

Lifespan: 50 Million

Other Characteristics: Linear (Silent)

Cherry MX Clear

Actuation Force (g): 55

Actuation Distance (mm): 2.2

Full Travel Distance (mm): 4

Lifespan: 50 Million

Other Characteristics: Tactile bump

Cherry MX Green

Actuation Force (g): 80

Actuation Distance (mm): 2.2

Full Travel Distance (mm): 4

Lifespan: 50 Million

Other Characteristics: Clicky

Cherry MX Speed

Actuation Force (g): 45

Actuation Distance (mm): 1.2

Full Travel Distance (mm): 4

Lifespan: 50 Million

Other Characteristics: Linear (Silent)

coil whine

Coil whine is a phenomenon in electronics where electromagnetic coils within an electrical circuit exhibit a high pitched sound as electricity passes through the circuit. Typically, this is most often heard in high performance computer components such as graphics cards and processors, but is actually very common in other electronics such as fluorescent light ballasts.

While annoying and sometimes a bit scary, coil whine is simply a result of sounds made as electricity passes through electrical coils. This is typically a result of poor engineering as these sounds can be minimized by utilizing coil dampening techniques. Rest assured however, no damage will occur to your system.

CPU

The CPU, also known as the Central Processing Unit, is one of the core components in a computer that includes all the logic needed to process programming instructions. CPUs are often also referred to as processor or microprocessor. Some people erroneously refer to the entire computer as the CPU.

CSV

CSV, or Comma-Separated Values, is tabular data expressed in plain text separated by commas, and is most commonly found in a CSV file. CSV files are typically created by a computer program or database in order to export its data to another computer program or database.

The reason why CSV files are so common is because CSV files are simply plain text and can easily be read by any application such as Microsoft Excel.

 

CSV Example

Tabular Data

Competitors Plan 1 Plan 2 Plan 3
Competitor A $10 $20 $30
Competitor B $15 $25 $35
Competitor C $20 $30 $40

CSV Data

Competitors, Plan 1, Plan 2, Plan 3
Competitor A, $10, $20, $30
Competitor B, $15, $25, $35
Competitor C, $20, $30, $40

CUDA cores

Nvidia GP100 GPU SM (Streaming Multiprocessor) Diagram

Nvidia GP100 GPU SM (Streaming Multiprocessor) Diagram

CUDA cores are the parallel processors within the Nvidia GPU (Graphics Processing Unit). Unlike a CPU which generally only contain only one to eight cores, Nvidia GPUs house thousands of CUDA cores. While these cores are not as powerful as those you’ll find in a CPU, they’re designed to work in parallel to process visual data quickly and generate the pixels that make up an image on a screen.

Generally speaking, the more CUDA cores a GPU has, the faster the performance of the GPU. However, CUDA cores may only be used for comparison between graphics cards of the same architecture. CUDA cores in different GPU architectures (Fermi, Kepler, Maxwell, etc.) perform differently.

The equivalent to CUDA cores on AMD (formerly ATI) GPUs is Stream Processors.

 

What is CUDA?

The CUDA from CUDA cores comes from Nvidia’s Compute Unified Device Architecture, which is a parallel computing platform and API (Application Programming Interface).

CUDA Computing Architecture

CUDA Computing Architecture

This technology was designed to allow developers to take advantage of the parallel processing capabilities already built within Nvidia GPUs for general purpose use. Using the CUDA, developers are able to execute high level programming languages such as C, C++, and Fortran.

CUDA is still widely used today to accelerate a variety of workloads such as 3D modeling, video rendering, simulations, machine learning, cryptography, and more.