wiki

hysteresis

Hysteresis in mechanical keyswitches occurs when the reset point on the switch is higher than the actuation point. For example, the Cherry MX Blue switch actuates at around 2.5mm from the top, but its reset point is only 1.5mm from the top. This means that the user would have to release the key beyond the actuation point before another keypress can be registered. Hysteresis is one of the main reason why many gamers prefer linear switches since the reset point is almost exactly where the actuation point is.

IOPS

IOPS, or Input/Output Operations per Second, is a storage performance metric which measures how many reads and writes are occurring every second. As smaller files take less time to transfer compared to larger files, the IOPS metric is typically used to measure transfers of 4K or 8K file sizes. Larger filesize reads and writes such as 128K, 512K and larger are typically measured by throughput such as MB/s (Megabytes Per Second) or GB/s (Gigabytes Per Second).

IPv6

IPv6, or Internet Protocol Version 6, is the next generation of Internet Protocol and is designed to replace the aging IPv4, or Internet Protocol Version 4.

 

Why do we need IPv6?

In order to understand why we need IPv6, we need to quickly understand IPv4 and its limitations.

In the early days of the internet, in order for computers and other devices to communicate, the US Government funded ARPANET, or Advanced Research Projects Agency Network, adopted a new standard called IPv4. This protocol governed how traffic moved around the internet at the time and continues to be in use today.

However, IPv4 has a major limitation. As it uses 32-bit addresses, it’s limited to 232 addresses which means there’s a maximum of just 4,294,967,296, or about 4 Billion addresses. Subtracting private networks along with multicast addresses and you’re left with a lot less. While this may not have been a problem back in 1983 when IPv4 was adopted by ARPANET, with the rise of personal computing, mobile computing, and IoT, we’re quickly running out of addresses.

To solve this issue, IPv6 was invented by the IETF, or Internet Engineering Task Force. Unlike IPv6 which uses just 32-bit addresses, IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses raising the total amount of IP addresses from roughly 4.3 Billion to 3.4 x 1038 , or 340 undecillion (trillion trillion) addresses.

 

What do IPv6 addresses look like?

IPv4

If you’ve ever used the internet, you’re probably very familiar with the IPv4 address. The address is simply four groups of three digits separated by periods.

The following are examples IPv4 addresses:

  • 10.10.10.10
  • 192.168.1.1
  • 256.256.256.256

IPv6

IPv6 addresses are quite different compared to IPv4 addresses. Due to its 128-bit addressing, IPv6 uses eight groups of four alphanumeric characters separated by colons. Any groups of zeros can be written as simply a single zero or can be omitted altogether.

The following are examples of the same IPv6 address:

  • 2620:2761:abcd:0000:0000:0000:2126:3462
  • 2620:2761:abcd:0:0:0:2126:3462
  • 2620:2761:abcd::2126:3462

Kailh Switches

Kailh Box Switch

Kailh switches are mechanical keyboard switches manufactured by Kailh, or Kaihua Electronics Co. Kailh is one of the most well known Cherry MX “clone” switch manufacturers with a number of well known keyboard manufacturers such as Razer, SteelSeries, Tesoro, Noppoo, QPAD, Nixeus and ThermalTake employing Kailh switches. Some keyboard manufacturers such as Razer and SteelSeries co-develop switches with Kailh in order to offer a more unique product to their customers.

In addition to mechanical keyboard switches, Kailh also manufactures mouse switches, relays, and other components typically used in peripherals. Kailh mouse switches are very popular as side button switches as they’re cheaper than the gold standard Omron mouse switches, but are not as durable.

 

Common Kailh Mechanical Keyboard Switches

Kailh Red

Actuation Force (g): 50

Actuation Distance (mm): 2.2

Full Travel Distance (mm): 4

Lifespan: 50 Million

Other Characteristics: Clicky

Kailh Black

Actuation Force (g): 60

Actuation Distance (mm): 2.2

Full Travel Distance (mm): 4

Lifespan: 50 Million

Other Characteristics: Linear (Silent)

Kailh Brown

Actuation Force (g): 60

Actuation Distance (mm): 2.2

Full Travel Distance (mm): 4

Lifespan: 50 Million

Other Characteristics: Tactile Bump

Kailh Blue

Actuation Force (g): 60

Actuation Distance (mm): 2.2

Full Travel Distance (mm): 4

Lifespan: 50 Million

Other Characteristics: Tactile Bump, Clicky

kill switch

Kill switch, when used in the context of VPNs, is a feature which automatically “kills” or stops any network activity once the VPN connection is lost.

This is a very important feature for VPN services as a even a momentary disconnection of the VPN may cause a user’s true IP as well as any un-encrypted information to be revealed over the internet. Using a kill switch ensures that unless a VPN connection is active, no internet connectivity will be allowed.

 

VPN Services with Kill Switch Functionality

LAN

LAN is an acronym for Local Area Network. As its name implies, LANs are networks in a relatively local location such as the network in a house, office or place of business.

As a LAN describes a local network, any type of networking devices may be used in a LAN. This could include a connections of devices established by using routers, switches, hubs, or wireless networking equipment such as access points.

LMAO

LMAO is an acronym that stands for Laughing My Ass Off.

The acronym is primarily used in text messaging, chatting, or on social media. It’s used to convey lots of laughter when something is very funny such as a joke, a meme or a video. While there are many variations of LMAO, the most popular is LMFAO, which is an acronym for Laughing My F*cking Ass Off.

 

Examples

John: “Check out this video of a cat on a Roomba!”

Jane: “LMAO!”

machine learning

Machine learning is the science of teaching machines to make decisions on their own based on data presented without being explicitly programmed to do so. Typically, this is done through studying patterns in the data.

An example of machine learning is image recognition. For example, non-machine learning code may define a stop sign as an object that has an eight-side shape, is red, and has the word STOP on it. With machine learning, the system is simply shown lots of images of stop signs until it’s able to recognize any stop sign.

Within the machine learning field, two of the most basic types of algorithms are supervised learning and unsupervised learning.

Supervised Learning – In supervised learning, the algorithms are designed so that systems are essentially taught what to do in certain situations. After learning what to do, the system will then make decisions based on what it’s learned.

Unsupervised Learning – In unsupervised learning, the algorithms are designed so that the system is designed to take in data, interpret the data on its own and make decisions based on its own interpretations.

malware

Malware, or Malicious Software, is a computer term referring to any type of software that’s malicious in nature. In other words, malware is a very broad term that encompasses everything designed to annoy or do harm to you or your computer systems. Some examples of malware include computer viruses, worms, spyware, adware, scareware, ransomware, Trojan horses, keyloggers, rootkits, etc.

As malware is defined by malicious intent rather than destruction or severely crippling a computer system, even applications that don’t cause computer issues but are designed to simply spy on your web browsing habits may be considered malware.

mesh Wi-Fi

Source: Ubiquiti

Mesh Wi-Fi is a term used to refer to a wireless network organized in a mesh, or ad hoc, topology.

Mesh networks both wired and wireless have long been used in enterprise networks, but mesh Wi-Fi has recently become a hot topic in the consumer networking as a possible solution to the problem of wireless dead spots in a home.

The way mesh Wi-Fi typically works is one of the mesh nodes serves as a router while the other mesh nodes act as range extenders. However, unlike a traditional range extender, mesh nodes are typically outfitted with multiple radios and multiple antennas to reduce bandwidth loss when connected through the nodes. They also typically feature the ability to utilize the same SSIDs which allows seamless handoff from one mesh node to another.

Examples of consumer mesh Wi-Fi systems include Eero, Ubiquiti AmpliFi, and Linksys Velop.