CSV, or Comma-Separated Values, is tabular data expressed in plain text separated by commas, and is most commonly found in a CSV file. CSV files are typically created by a computer program or database in order to export its data to another computer program or database.

The reason why CSV files are so common is because CSV files are simply plain text and can easily be read by any application such as Microsoft Excel.


CSV Example

Tabular Data

Competitors Plan 1 Plan 2 Plan 3
Competitor A $10 $20 $30
Competitor B $15 $25 $35
Competitor C $20 $30 $40

CSV Data

Competitors, Plan 1, Plan 2, Plan 3
Competitor A, $10, $20, $30
Competitor B, $15, $25, $35
Competitor C, $20, $30, $40

CUDA cores

Nvidia GP100 GPU SM (Streaming Multiprocessor) Diagram

Nvidia GP100 GPU SM (Streaming Multiprocessor) Diagram

CUDA cores are the parallel processors within the Nvidia GPU (Graphics Processing Unit). Unlike a CPU which generally only contain only one to eight cores, Nvidia GPUs house thousands of CUDA cores. While these cores are not as powerful as those you’ll find in a CPU, they’re designed to work in parallel to process visual data quickly and generate the pixels that make up an image on a screen.

Generally speaking, the more CUDA cores a GPU has, the faster the performance of the GPU. However, CUDA cores may only be used for comparison between graphics cards of the same architecture. CUDA cores in different GPU architectures (Fermi, Kepler, Maxwell, etc.) perform differently.

The equivalent to CUDA cores on AMD (formerly ATI) GPUs is Stream Processors.


What is CUDA?

The CUDA from CUDA cores comes from Nvidia’s Compute Unified Device Architecture, which is a parallel computing platform and API (Application Programming Interface).

CUDA Computing Architecture

CUDA Computing Architecture

This technology was designed to allow developers to take advantage of the parallel processing capabilities already built within Nvidia GPUs for general purpose use. Using the CUDA, developers are able to execute high level programming languages such as C, C++, and Fortran.

CUDA is still widely used today to accelerate a variety of workloads such as 3D modeling, video rendering, simulations, machine learning, cryptography, and more.

dark web

The dark web is a portion of the deep web that’s inaccessible without specialized privacy software. The most infamous software used to access the dark web is Tor, but other software such as I2P or Freenet exists as well.

The reason why software is required to access the dark web is because servers running on the dark web conceal themselves using what are called hidden services. By using hidden services, servers can prevent themselves from being located; however, specialized software that work with hidden services such as Tor is needed to access them.

Websites on the dark web can be accessed in the same manner to those on the clear web, which is what you’re using right now to access this website. However, rather than typing in an address followed by a .com, .net, .org, .us, etc. dark web websites use .onion. Additionally, most of the websites on the dark web aren’t indexed by search engines either, so you’ll have to know the address of the site you want to visit.

As the dark web isn’t policed, anything can exist on the dark web. While the dark web has gotten a lot of negative publicity due to users on the service buying/selling drugs, guns, fake passports and even assassinations, the dark web is also commonly used by whistleblowers, journalists, and regular internet users who simply want to use the anonymity benefits of the Onion Network to surf the clear web.


DDR4 SDRAM, or just simply DDR4, stands for Double Data Rate 4th Generation Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory. DDR4 is the latest generation of DDR SDRAM and is the successor to the widely adopted DDR3 SDRAM.

DDR4 has numerous advantages over its predecessors including a lower operating voltage, faster speeds, higher capacity, and significantly improved error correction capabilities.

deep web

The deep web is a portion of the internet that isn’t indexed by search engines. This can include anything like access to your e-mail account, access to your bank account, access to your school’s academic journals, access to your workplace’s internal intranet, or simply just a website that’s accessible by its IP only.

One thing that’s important to note is that the deep web should not be confused with the dark web. While technically the dark web is a part of the deep web, the deep web isn’t as secretive nor does it have the same negative connotation that the dark web implies.


DFS, when used in the context of wireless networking, stands for Dynamic Frequency Selection.

DFS is a spectrum sharing technology which allows Wi-Fi to operate in 5GHz frequency bands allocated to radar systems without causing interference. In order to do this, devices that support DFS will continually monitor the frequency for potential radar signals. If a radar signal is detected, the device will leave the frequency, switch to another channel, and stay away from the channel with a radar signal for a set period of time.

DFS channels include 52, 56, 60, 64, 100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 120, 124, 128, 132, 136 and 140.

Devices that support DFS include the Ubiquiti UniFi AP AC PRO.


DHCP, or Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, is a technology designed to allow clients to request a lease of an IP address from a pool (also know as a table) of available IPs at the time of the request. DHCP can also supply other information such as the subnet mask and default gateway.

The primary use of DHCP is to simplify the work of the network admin. It offloads the work of having to manually assign IPs and prevents IP conflicts among clients. It is an essential feature in both small home networks where consumers are unfamiliar with complicated network setup and large networks that have hundreds and thousands of clients.


FC SAN, or Fiber Channel Storage Area Network, is a type of SAN which uses fiber channel to connect servers and the SAN. Fiber channel is an ultra high speed technology designed for transmitting data at data up to 128Gb/s.


FiOS is a term coined by Verizon for their Fiber Optic Service, a service that provides internet, voice or television services to homes and businesses.

Unlike DSL or cable, FiOS uses fiber optic cables to transmit signals, which allow for greater performance and longer signal travel distances compared to DSL or cable although fiber optic cables are significantly more expensive when compared to traditional copper cables such as those used for phone lines or cable TV.

Currently, the two major providers of FiOS service in the United States are Verizon Communications and Frontier Communications.


Firmware is a piece of software that’s pre-loaded onto a hardware typically in its ROM (Read-Only Memory) to interact with other pieces of hardware or software. Firmware can be most easily thought of as the base software that provides any piece of hardware its functionality. Without firmware, most hardware with any sort of processing capability would not work.


Firmware Updates

When support documentation or tech support refer to firmware updates, they refer to updating the base software in the hardware. This is typically accomplished through a product’s software suite, a specialized firmware updater from the manufacturer or in the case of a motherboard, the BIOS or UEFI menu. As firmware provides all the functionality to the hardware, firmware updates allow hardware manufacturers to fix issues such as bugs, provide better optimization with certain pieces of software, or provide users with new features.


Firmware vs Drivers

Firmware is the base software required for hardware to function while drivers are the software that interface the hardware with the Operating System. As such, these are very different pieces of software. For example, a graphics card could easily use one piece of firmware for all types of operating systems however, the driver for Linux would be significantly different compared to the Windows driver.